The 4th Law of Motion

November 13, 2021

Currently held ideas concerning Brownian motion and the kinetic theory conflict with fundamental physics and with randomness and large numbers in statistical analysis. The theoretical discussions deal with collisions between objects that are already in contact. A 4th Law of Motion is proposed: masses that are in contact cannot collide.
Periodic sound beat aqueous standing waves along rigid and compliant boundaries

September 22, 2021

This is a new defining essay on the essence of transition to turbulence. It is a short illustrated essay on the cause of enigmatic turbulent spots, the immediate precursors of turbulent flow along boundaries. It is based on fundamental physics, and is presented in easy-to-understand terms and language. The answer to the riddle of transition to turbulence lies in understandable (but convoluted) fundamental physics.
The motion of Brownian particles and of the molecules and atoms of water

December 5, 2020

Current theory that constantly moving water molecules collide with colloidal Brownian particles, causing zigzag particle motion, defies laws of physics. Water molecules, in contact with each other and the particles, cannot collide.  The enormous mass difference and statistics preclude demonstrable particle displacement. Wobbling water molecules, secondary to different intrinsic elastic oscillation frequencies of hydrogen and oxygen atoms, could jostle dissolved wobbling molecules in all directions, explaining diffusion. Simultaneously, simple harmonic oscillation of specific numbers and locations of each atom’s protons and electrons might generate the element-specific light emission bands in the spectrum of sunlight and starlight. – and might contribute to, or be responsible for, the composite white light spectrum of sunlight. Environmental sound that causes to-and-fro eardrum movements, might explain the "zig" and "zag" colloid particle motion.  Vibrational molecular motion would permit considering water flow in laminae of molecular thickness along boundaries where the enigma of turbulence originates.  

T-S sound beats, boundary braking, vortices and turbulence

July 2, 2020 - Submitted to the International Journal of Aeroacoustics 

Arising out of laminar flow, the simple harmonic (SH) T-S shear waves – a  complex of boundary layer flutter (BLF) waves, wavy path (WP) waves and sub-T-S waves –  may be "travelling" or stationary. T-S waves create SH transverse sound and periodic sound beats and vertical hydraulic pressure bands that freeze laminar slip, first focally, creating turbulent spots, and then generalized, creating noisy high-resistance turbulent flow.  In water flow, alternating high and low transverse pressure bands, superimposed on periodically on similar compression / decompression bands of sound beats created by the BLF waves, result in SH standing waves. In late transition, amplified transverse sound waves, coursing perpendicularly through horizontally-flowing T-S wave laminae, cause random foci of laminar freezing (laminar interlocking), which are ripped out of T-S wave crests as random turbulent spots. Turbulence arises as  generalized laminar freezing erupts, creating many random turbulent spots and noisy high resistance turbulent flow.
WORK IN PROGRESS - Periodic boundary pressure bands from the T-S wave trinity

October 10, 2019 - copyright copy at Lerners LLD

The complexity of the simple harmonic (SH) Tollmien-Schlichting (T-S) waves of transition offers insight into the enigma of the physics of transition to turbulence.  T-S waves, generated by viscous friction along a boundary, consist of  a SH trinity:
  • 1) boundary layer flutter (BLF) waves (the principal shear waves),
  • 2) laminar membrane (LM) waves (the paths of the BLF waves), and
  • 3) the sub-LM waves (that must lie under the boundary lamina’s wave crests).
Because air and water flow react similarly during transition to turbulence as the flow rate rises gradually, and because air introduces the variable of compressibility, focussing on un-compressible water flow helps to decode the fluid mechanics of transition.  Each lamina flows along identical SH sinusoidal paths, layer-upon-layer within the T-S wave complex. The physics of sound plays a fundamental role because, during transition, the oscillation of the water mass in each lamina is a vibration that creates a sound wave. Although each lamina’s velocity and sound frequency increase as the distance from the boundary increases, the crests and troughs of  each lamina are always in phase, creating a SH beat frequency with alternating bands of compression and decompression along the boundary – moving at the speed of the T-S waves, paradoxically as a “travelling” standing wave sound field. The compression and decompression sound wave bands are superimposed on the bands of high and low hydraulic pressure, respectively,  along the boundary, each contributing to random foci of laminar freezing with head-over-heels vortices (“turbulent spots”), which become generalized as noisy, high-resistance turbulence onsets. 
Nuclear solutions National Post letter

December 26, 2020

Molecular Motion in Fluids

March 29, 2017 - with postscript added August 25, 2019

Because a Brownian particle's motion cannot be caused by collisions with water molecules one trillionth of its mass, one might consider alternative explanations for molecular kinetics. Vibrational oscillation of molecules could cause diffusion through inter-molecular collisions in fluids, consistent with Einstein’s "random walk” mechanism. Alternatively, SH elastic omni-planar oscillation of atoms would result in secondary molecular oscillation. If so, elastic oscillation of atoms might be at a specific frequency for each element, perhaps explaining the signature photon emission flux that characterizes each element on the periodic table, when heated to incandescence. By these arguments, laminar flow might exist at ultramicroscopic dimensions along boundaries where transition to turbulence originates.
The Rising Menace of Toxic Enterocolitis of Clostridium Difficile et al


In defiance of Alexander Fleming’s 1945 warning in his Nobel Laureate acceptance speech, “Penicillin,” since the mid-1950s, massive amounts of sub-therapeutic doses of broad spectrum antibiotics have been fed to livestock (cattle, poultry, fish) in North American factory farms as “growth promoters.”  Bacterial pathogens remaining alive in the manure must be antibiotic resistant!  With rainfall, manure runoff contaminates streams and lakes.  Antibiotic resistant genes cross over from one bacterial species to unrelated species by “gene-jumping – in the manure pile, in contaminated water and in the throats and colons of patients and nurses in infectious disease wards in hospitals, creating the multi-antibiotic resistant “superbugs” that increasingly menace our world, just as Fleming predicted.

Thalidomide Globe and Mail Letter

November 29, 2014

A casual remark by a pharmaceutical representative saved my family practice obstetrical patients from exposure to the adverse fetal-anomaly effects of in utero exposure to the anti-nauseant drug, thalidomide in the 1960s. The drug “rep” stated that computerized processing of data on adverse effects gave results in six months that otherwise would take years. I refused to prescribe thalidomide because six months was far too short, since a pregnancy takes ten lunar months and even two years would be too short to assess any new drug’s adverse effects.  By very vigorous lobbying, the pharmaceutical industry persists in persuading ledislators to fast-track their new drugs, setting the stage for many repeats of the thalidomide catastrophe.

Reversing global warming by the miracle of photosynthesis

May 27, 2019

Leaf photosynthesis extracts atmospheric CO2 and absorbs the sun’s radiant energy to create the wood in trees worldwide. Shaded soil under trees and on the forest floor cool the air. Man’s 400 years of increasing deforestation can cause rising CO2 and atmospheric temperature. Burning wood or fossil fuels releases the stored CO2 and sequestered solar radiant energy. 
“Be Prepared,” with a “super-Heimlich”

December 5, 2014

Modifying a vintage Boy Scouts St. John’s Ambulance First Aid technique offers a simple method of suddenly increasing tracheal air pressure (“pop gun” physics) to dislodge a food bolus.
Puns and the subconscious mind

August 3, 2017 - Dundurn Press Blog for Dundurn Press authors

The subconscious mind teases us, by selecting from its stored vocabulary, words with double meanings to amuse, not just the audience, but also the speaker, who recognizes the uttered pun a few seconds before the listener(s).
Newton’s laws in Brownian motion

July 21, 2017, Submitted to Nature Communications

Because a Brownian particle can be about one trillion times the mass of a water molecule, it is untenable that it can be visibly displaced by multidirectional collisions, on all surfaces, with innumerable randomly moving water molecules.The impacts of wavefronts of innumerable water molecules conducting the many frequencies, multiple directions and varying volumes of environmental sound could cause random knee-jerk motion in Brownian particles.
Brownian Movement

October 25, 2018

It is impossible that the immense mass of a Brownian particle can be visibly (microscopically) moved by innumerable random  collisions on all surfaces by intrinsic rectilinear motion of water molecules.
The Matter of Light in the Universe

June 14, 2017

Logic suggests that Newton’s concept of light as particles (that might be propagated in particle waves, like sound waves) is correct. Particulate photons make photometer vanes move, and are deflected by the grav-ity of massive stars. It explains how particulate  photons might be susceptible to polarization.
Oscillations and Undulations in Shear Flows

May 11, 2017

A lamina displaying simple harmonic (SH) oscillations creates transverse SH sound just as an oscillation of any mass would do. Benjamin’s experiment using water flow over a wavy boundary (1959) exemplifies how laminae travel along identical paths at varying velocities in SH laminar shear waves of transition as laminar flutter waves. The wavy paths slide along at  slower speeds than the rate of flow.
A Brownian motion parable: The Zigzagging Ball in Blind Pollywog Lake

April 10, 2017

This allegory proves that the currently held concept of Brownian movement is impossible.
The Philosophy of Sound‐Induced Transition to Turbulence

September 26, 2016

The SST Sound Cone Cloud Disc

May 16, 2016

Light as Dark Matter

October 20, 2015

Similar Tyndall-Nikuradse-Hof Transverse Turbulent
Flow Patterns in Tubes

September 25, 2015

The Four Shear Waves of Transition

August 10, 2015

Rifled Rotation in Turbulent Cylinder Flow

November 20, 2013 - "The best laid plans of mice and men gang aft agley," Robert Burns

Standing Waves (Fluid and Sound) of Transition

August 23, 2013

Active and Passive Components of the Dolphin's Hydrodynamic Advantage

April 29, 2013

National Post "Letter to the Editor"

March 21, 2013

Patterns of Fluid Flow - Royal College Submission

September 1, 1974